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# Single Phase Mass Balance

Solve Mass Balance Problems involving Ideal and Real Gases in a very practical way!
Apply Mass Balances to Single-Phase Systems
Solve Mass Balance Problems involving Real Gases
Solve Mass Balance Problems involving Ideal Gases
Solve Mass Balance Problems involving either Solids or Liquids
Learn the different ways a Real Gas may be modeled
Understand the Compressibility Factor "Z" and the Law of Corresponding States
Use the Ideal Gas Law for Mass Balances
Understand the difference between Vapor and Gas
Identify the Critical Point in a Phase-Diagram
Apply the Virial Equation to a Gas
Understand the concept of Standard Conditions of Temperature and Pressure

Welcome to the Single Phase Mass Balance Course!

I designed this course is for general engineering fields. Chemical and Process Engineers will find it very relevant for their study curriculum but even Mechanical or Industrial Engineers will find it very interesting!

By the end of this course you will learn:

• The importance of Phases when Solving Mass Balance Problems
• Application of constant densities of Solid and Liquids in Chemical Proceses
• How to model Ideal Gases with the Ideal Gas Law
• Why are Standard Conditions of Temperature and Pressure used in the industry
• How to model Real Gases with the Virial Equation
• How to model Real Gases with the Z-Compressibility Factor Chart
• How to model Real Gas Mixtures with the Kay Rule

By the end of the Course you will be able to:

• Solve Mass Balance Problems of many real-life Chemical Processes involving Single-Phase Systems
• Model Ideal Gases vs. Real Gases

The course is structured as follow:

• 6 Sections of Theory and Applied Examples (Video-Based!)
• 22 Mass Balance Solved Exercises!
• 3 Quizes for Learning Review
• Support on the Discussion Board!

This is a very important Subject in Engineering and is the basis of further courses such as:

• Energy Balance and Thermodynamic
• Heat and Mass Transfer Operations and Unit Operations
• Reactor Engineering and Plant Design

I teach this course for about \$400 per semester. You will get it as low as \$25 for a LIFETIME!

NOTE: This is the continuation of my other course MB1: Introduction to Mass Balance. I highly recommend you take first the other course in order to get the best of this course!

The Course Curriculum may be seen below!

### Course Overview

1
Course Overview and Introduction

This is an overview of this Course. This course divides in:

• Solid and Liquids
• Gases - Ideal Gas Modeling and Mass Balance Problem solving
• Gases - Real Gases
• Virial Equation
• Z-Compressibility Factor

By the end of the course you should be able to perform more elaborate Mass Balance Problems including different phases (Single-Phase Problems).

### Solids and Liquids

1
Phases Theory

The definition of Phase is explained. Single-Phase problems are those that only have 1 Phase (either liquid, solid or gas)

2
Solid and Liquids in Mass Balance

This Section covers solids and liquids. Since their densities are almost independent of temperature and can be considered constant, we pay special attention on this concept.

Solids and Liquids are very common phases in the industry!

3
Solid and Liquids - Example #1

An example regarding the density of a liquid

4
Solid and Liquids - Example #2

Another example reggarding densities!

5
Solid and Liquids - Example #3

The density of a liquid and how it is useful for other tasks

6
Estimating Densities

How to estimate densities of mixtures or other substances

7
EXERCISES#01 - Bulk and Absolute Densities in Solid and Liquids

Using the different type of deffinitions of density: Bulk and Absolute Densities.

8
EXERCISES#02 - Density of a Slurry (Part 1)

Density of a Slurry, a mixture of a solid and liquid. Be aware of the correction in the Video

9
EXERCISES#02 - Density of a Slurry (Part 2)

Density of a Slurry, a mixture of a solid and liquid. Be aware of the correction in the Video

10
Solids and Liquids

### Ideal Gases and Mass Balances

1
Gases

A brief introduction to Gases, its importance in engineering and why it is harder to model

2
Ideal Gas Model

We present the Ideal Gas Model which is very important. You probably have already worked with it...

3
Ideal Gas Limitants

The typical limitations of the Ideal Gas. High pressures and low temperatures... the more near the molecules, the more interaciton they have and therefore, more non-ideal they became

4
Why Ideal Gas in Mass Balance?

Why we model with Ideal Gas. We explain the application to Mass Balance Solving

5
Ideal Gas: Example

An applied example of the Ideal Gas Law

6
Standard Conditions: Temperature and Pressure

Standard Conditions are conditions for a Standard Use. Typical values of T, P and V varies dependeing o n the industry or institution.

7
Standard Cubic Meter per Hour (SCMH)

SCMH is a "standardized" or "normalized" measurement of gases flowing in pipes. They give a reference value and comparable to other streams if they where on the same conditions

8
Standard Conditions: Example #1

Examples of the use and application of the Standard Conditions of Temperature an Pressure AKA STP

9
Standard Conditions: Example #2

Another example on how we can apply the SCMH concept

10
Standard Conditions: Example #3

Last example of STP

11
Ideal Gas Mixture: Partial Pressures

Mixture of substance in gas phase are very common. Even though they are separate substances, they are still in one phase (gas phase). We apply the partial pressures and Ideal Gas in order to model such mixtures.

12
Example of Ideal Gases in Mass Balance

We finally apply the concepts seen in this sections to a Mass Balance. Get the idea of how we could model data. We get T, P and form there we get moles!

13
Ideal Gases
14
EXERCISES#03 - Basic Ideal Gas Calculation

Using the Ideal Gas Law to calculate Volume and moles

15
EXERCISES#04 - Ideal Gas Constant (R) Exercises

The ideal gas constant "R" may vary depending on the values of units oyu choose. Here is a fastway to convert them

16
EXERCISES#05 - Flow Rate of a Gas (Density Exercise)

Using the ideal gas law to get the density of a flowign gas

17
EXERCISES#06 - Specific Gravity of Gases

We compare specific gravities using the ideal gas law

18
EXERCISES#07 - Gas theft. Applying the Ideal Gas law to identify the theft.

Very creative problem on how a company steals gas from another company.

19
EXERCISES#08 - Combustion of a Gas

Using the ideal gas law to a combusiton process

20
EXERCISES#09 - Calculating de Volume Expansion of Hydrazine

Hydrazine may be used as a propellant due to its expansion reaction (increase of moles and volume)

21
EXERCISES#10 - Vaporization of Acetone by Nitrogen

The problem is based on the vaporization of Acetone due to a stream of Nitrogen

22
EXERCISES#11 - Chlorine Tank Storage

Ideal Gas Law Application to Chlorine Tank

23
EXERCISES#12 - Production of Sulfuric Acid in Equilibrium (Part 1)

We use two concepts known by now: Equilibrium and Ideal Gas Law

24
EXERCISES#12 - Production of Sulfuric Acid in Equilibrium (Part 2)

We use two concepts known by now: Equilibrium and Ideal Gas Law

25
EXERCISES#12 - Production of Sulfuric Acid in Equilibrium (Part 3)
26
EXERCISES#13 - Ideal Gases in Multiple Equilibria

Once again, multiple equilibrium with ideal gases!

### Real Gases (Theory)

1
Real Gases

Definition of a Real gas. That gas that can not be modeled with ideal gas law

2
Critical Point

The Critical Point is a sepcial point. In this point the liquid and the gas are no longer separable. The gas has superfluid properties and the liquid has also superfluid properties

3
Reduced Conditions

Reduced conditions are a type of "standardization" in order to compare substances. The reference is the critical point conditions such as Temperature and Pressure (critical)

4
Gas vs. Vapor

Its very important to remark the difference between gas and vapor. Esentially is the critical point that makes the difference.

### Mass Balance with Real Gases

1
Virial Equation Introduction

A common model for a Real Gas. This uses "virial" terms. It is good for pressure or temperature modeling. Its difficult for volume model due to the amount of volume terms.

2
Virial Equation: Example

An example of how to apply the Truncated Virial Equation. Remember that by theory, the virial equation is infinite. You should choose the number of terms you are going to work with.

3
Other Equations

Other Equations may be used. The Scope of this Course is only to:

• Virial Equation
• Z compressbility Factor

You may study other equations in typical courses such as Thermodynamics

4
Compressibility Factor (Z)

This video introduces the concept of compressibility factor "Z". This is essentially just a direct correction to the ideal gas law. This is easy and very powerful!

5
Example: Compressibility Factor

A fast example of the compressibility factor "Z"

6
Newton's Corrections

For some diatomic molceules, it is better to apply a correctino factor named by Newton. This should be done since they are some times very important and will correct your predictions

7
Compressibility Chart

We present the compressibility chart for each substance. It show "Z" value for every substance, T and P

8
Law of Corresponding States

If we get ONE compressibility chart that applies to every single substance, would be awesome wouldnt it?

We could use the law of corresponding states which help us get ONE chart of Z values vs. T and P!

9
Factor Z Example

A compressibility factor "Z" example

10
Mixture of Real Gases: Kay Rule

How do we model Real Gases in mixtures? We must use the Kay Rule which is easy to understand but it takes a little bit of time to calculate...

11
Kay Rule Example

The Kay Rule applied to a mixture of Gases!

12
EXERCISES#14 - Volume of a Gas Modeled by the Virial Equation

Modeling Volume using the Truncated Virial Equation

13
EXERCISES#15 - Compressibility Factor "Z" for Real Gases

Calculating the "Z" Factor

14
EXERCISES#16 - Compressibility of Oxygen and Newton Correction

We apply the Z compressbility factor to Oxygen and then Use Newton's Correction.

15
EXERCISES#17 - Nitrogen Purge System

As with previeous example, we apply Z factor to Nitrogen Purge system. Remember that Nitrogen is a diatomic molecule, therefore we apply Newton's Corrections

16
EXERCISES#18 - Liquid Nitrogen Flashing to Real Gas

We "evaporate" the Liquid Nitrogen. Due to conditions, we can't model this as an ideal gas. We use Z-Compressibility Factor

17
EXERCISES#19 - Mixture of Gases and the Kay Rule

We apply the Kay Rule to a mixture of gases. Be sure to use correctly the Kay Rule!

18
EXERCISES#20 - Compression of a Mixture of Gases

We compress a mixture of gases from State 1 to State 2. We model the mixture with the Kay Rule

19
EXERCISES#21 - Production of Methanol in Gaseous Phase

Finally we apply the real gas concepts to a production process!

20
EXERCISES#22 - Mixture of Gases flowing in a Pipeline

Application of the Kay Rule to a mixture of gases flowing in a pipe. We use many concpets here!

21
Real Gases

### Course Conlusion

1
Conclusion and Final Notes

Course Conclusion and some Final notes!

Please leave a Review guys! It helps a lot to the commnity and also helps me know what should I improve!

2

Hey there! Thank you very much for joining the course...

I kindly ask you to leave a review... It helps me to know what should I improve and helps other to know if the course is worth the time and money!

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